After the second world war, which claimed the lives of over 60million people and shook the economy again, there was yet another cold war based on political motives majorly, which lasted for about 45 years and changed the political, economic and geographical scenario of some of the nations to a great extent.
Why is it called the Cold War?
The war wasn’t actually a physical fight between nations, however, it was based extensively on geographical, economic, and political actions that were undertaken without any military actions involved.
Fun fact: Who used the terms cold war first?
Bernard Baruch, a multimillionaire financier, who advised upon financial terms to many Presidents- coined the term in order to describe the rather cold relations between the former allies- USA and USSR.
Which nations were involved in the cold war?
The cold war was mainly raging between the two former allies in the world war- The USSR(Soviet Union) and The USA.
How did the cold war begin?
After Nazi Germany surrendered after world war 2, the allies between the two biggest superpowers- the USA and the USSR, started to dwindle. On one hand, the USA was having a great military base and was one of the strongest economies in the world. On the other hand was the USSR, which covered the largest land area and consisted of strict military and political laws following communalism.
The year 1947-48:
The USA tried to influence its power over the western European countries by extending loans at substantial rates and also a military presence in their regions- known as the Marshall plan.
USSR, in turn, solidified its pro communists’ government in the eastern European liberal countries like Hungary, Bulgaria, etc.
The borders of these countries powdered over indirectly by the USSR and USA differently were divided by an Iron Curtain.
The cold face-off between the major superpowers:
The year is 1948, the USA formed NATO- North Atlantic Treaty Organisation( formed in 1949) which was done in a bid to basically resist the growth of the Soviet presence in Europe. The USSR too unsuccessfully tried to blockade or demarcate the West Berlin region, where the USA had to supply necessities by drones. There was more of a challenge or a competition between both the superpowers- in every field: starting from Atomic Bomb testing, Sports, Films- everything. In the USA, Hollywood was used to demeaning the communist ideas and in the USSR, any anti-communist or liberal ideologies were suppressed.
Atomic bomb launch.
The USA was known to have high levelled power control over its possession of the nuclear and atomic bombs. This American Monopoly of being the only superpowers- in this field was broken by the USSR, by launching their first atomic warhead in 1949.
What was going on in other countries?
Chinese communists gained immense power in mainland China, and thus with Soviet Union help, introduced communalism. However later on, due to immense control exerted by USSR on China, it (China) was a clash of ideas on a regular basis with USSR and couldn’t make its own decisions thus, being under regular control. Also, USSR had not so good relations with the USA, so China parted ways from USSR’s influence in 1969.
The communist government in North Korea, backed by Soviet support, waged a war against South Korea, supported by the USA in the year 1950, thus starting the Korean war that lasted till 1953 and finally resulting in the demarcation of clear lines and building boundaries between the two nations.
What happened in Cuba?
Better known as the Cuban Missile crisis was termed as the worst direct face-off between the USA and the Soviet Union. It was caused due to a result of the major miscommunications between The USA and the Soviet Union’s respective presidents. It was the closest to which both the nations were at a nuclear conflict. The confrontation lasted for about 13 days, It is rumoured that the Americans discovered the Ballistic Missile present in Cuba by the Soviet Union, thus leading to a near confrontation.
What was the cause of the Cuban Missile crisis?
The Soviet Union had, as requested by Cuba, placed nuclear missiles in there, to defend any future missile invasion. The Soviet Union agreed to this mainly to churn out a response to finding America’s Jupiter Ballistic Missiles in Italy and Turkey. The indirect confrontation lasted roughly 13 days.